If eye is imagined as a camera, the retina in diabetic retinopathy has the photo film role.The Retina covers about 2/3 of the inner surface of the eye. It has a very thin light-sensitive nervous tissues of the body through which the projected visual information is then forwarded to the brain.At the very center of the retina is the macula. The macula is a very specific portion of the retina as it is responsible for central vision, namely, it recognizes complex shapes, fine objects as it is used for reading.
For many diabetics, especially those with poorly controlled diabetes, which results in a too high blood sugar levels over a lengthy period, the disease damages retinal blood vessels.Many diabetics with mild diabetic retinopathy keep good vision, but often diabetic retinopathy significantly reduces vision.Let’s look at non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and macular edema (MT).
NON-PROLIFERATIVE DIABETIC RETINOPATHY
At the very initial stage of this condition, retinal blood vessels appear to show small microaneurisms which can be placed on the fluid in the retina. As the disease progresses, the mikroaneurisms can swell and deform, as well as cause subtle retinal blood vessels to lose their ability to deliver blood. In severe NPDR large amounts of retinal blood vessels are blocked thus inhibiting retinal perfusion areas. In these areas of the retina are secreted growth factors that cause the retina to form new blood vessels. In this case, the disease stage switch to PDR.
PROLIFERATIVE DIABETIC RETINOPATHY
PNR results when retinal blood vessels are closed due to lack of blood. This causes the growth of abnormal very fine and fragile new blood vessels on the retina’s surface. These newly formed blood vessels can rupture and bleed, which in turn can lead to complete loss of vision of the eye internal bleeding, retinal scarring and retinal detachment.
Macular edema is the accumulation of fluid in the retina directly in the macular area. The formation of a swelling in the retina results in significantly impaired central vision.Macular edema may develop at any stage of the disease.
Diabetic retinopathy in the early stages usually have no symptoms , so the disease often progresses unnoticed. Bleeding from pathological retinal blood vessels can cause staining floating field of vision. These spots can disappear on their own ( absorbed ) , but without adequate treatment bleeding often is repeated , increasing the risk of irreversible loss of vision .Macular edema may cause blurred vision .Timely detection of diabetic retinopathy and its treatment of the risk of losing vision is reduced by 95%.
If you have developed diabetic retinopathy , blood vessels can be welded through use of laserphotocoagulation. During this procedure, the laser is employed to ” cauterize ” pathological blood vessels, reducing the possibility of fluid accumulation in the retina. This procedure may not necessarily improving eyesight , but can reduce the chances of it get worse.
Other treatment provides a medicament containing inhibition growth factors injected into the eye . Such medications aim to prevent the creation of new blood vessels in the retina.
You definitely should consult your doctor for proper treatment!